Analisis Arah Global Health Diplomacy Indonesia dalam COVID-19: Kooperatif atau Kompetitif?
Keywords:COVID – 19, Global Health Diplomacy, Indonesia, Cooperative, Competitive
COVID – 19 is an unprecedented occasion that forces every state to adapt to the current changes in the dynamics of international relations. The impacts that are given by the Pandemic are not only on the health aspects, but also give the spillover effects to some aspects, such as economy and social, as the result of the closed-border policy and the restrictions policy on trading. By that means, the holistic and comprehensive approaches are needed to tackle the pandemic. Furthermore, Global Health Diplomacy is considered as one of the instruments or means to tackle the impacts of it. Notwithstanding, there are some states which implement the Me First Policy, especially at the beginning of the Pandemic. This paper examines Indonesia Foreign Policy through Global Health Diplomacy during COVID – 19 and to analyses the characteristics of the policy, either cooperative or competitive. This paper uses the concept of Global Health Diplomacy by Kickbusch and Told on 21st Century Health Diplomacy: A New Relationship between Foreign Policy and Health, Global Health Diplomacy: The Need for New Perspectives, Strategic Approaches and Skills in Global Health, by Kickbusch, Ilona; Silberschmidt, Gaudenz; Buss, Paulo and the concept of Global Health Diplomacy by Khazatzadeh-Mahani, A., Ruckert, A., & LabontÉ, R Through its Global Health Diplomacy, Indonesia is aiming to implement the policy which are based on the solidarity and cooperativeness.
Keywords: COVID – 19, Global Health Diplomacy, Indonesia, Cooperative, Competitive
Bank, A. D. (2020, April). Managing Infectious Medical Waste during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Retrieved from Asian Development Bank: https://www.adb.org/publications/managing-medical-waste-covid19
Chen, K. (2020, May 14). In China, strict quarantine improves air quality and prevents thousands of premature deaths. Retrieved from YALE School of Medicine: https://medicine.yale.edu/news-article/24721/
Khazatzadeh-Mahani, A. R. (2019). Global Health Diplomacy. The Oxford Handbook of Global Health Politics, 103.
Kickbusch, I., Silberschmidt, G., & Buss, P. (2007). Global Health Diplomacy: The Need for New Perspectives, Strategic Approaches and Skills in Global Health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85 (3), 230 - 232.
Kickbusch, I. (2013). 21st Century Health Diplomacy: A New Relationship between Foreign Policy and Health. In I. Kickbusch, & M. Told, 21st Century Global Healty Diplomacy (pp. 1 - 40).
Koplan, J., Bond, T., Merson, M., Reddy, K., Rodriguez, M., Sewankambo, N., & Wasserheit, J. (2009). Towards a Common Definition of Global Health. Viewpoint, 1993-1995.
Litbangkes. (2020, April 24). Badan Litbangkes Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Retrieved from Solidarity Trial, Simbol Semangat Kebersamaan dan Kesatuan dalam Melawan Covid- 19: https://www.litbang.kemkes.go.id/solidarity-trial-simbol-semangat-kebersamaan-dan-kesatuan-dalam-melawan-covid-19/
L.M. Fathun & Nurmasari S. (2021). Oncept Of Global Health Diplomacy In International Relations. AEGIS : Journal of International Relations.
Lowy Institute. (2018). Asia Power Index. Lowy Institute.
Maryadi, H. L., Dewi, E. D., Aryadi, T., Santikajaya, A., Fitri, W., & Putro, R. A. (2018). Kementrian Luar Negeri . Retrieved from https://kemlu.go.id/download/L3NpdGVzL3B1c2F0L0RvY3VtZW50cy9LYWppYW4lMjBCUFBLL1AzSyUyME9JLU1VTFRJTEFURVJBTC8wNl9LZXNlaGF0YW5fdW50dWtfU2VtdWEucGRm
Narain, U. (2020, July 2). Air Pollution: Locked Down by COVID - 19 but Not Arrested. Retrieved from The World Bank: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/immersive-story/2020/07/01/air-pollution-locked-down-by-covid-19-but-not-arrested
Negeri, K. L. (2020, April 3). Kementerian Luar Negeri Indonesia. Retrieved from Indonesia Sukses Loloskan Resolusi PBB Perdana Tentang Solidaritas Global Atasi COVID-19: https://kemlu.go.id/portal/en/read/1160/view/indonesia-successfully-passes-the-first-un-resolution-on-global-solidarity-to-overcome-covid-19
Septiari, D. (2020, August 21). The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from Government, Bio Farma secure vaccine bulk supply from China's Sinovac: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/08/21/retno-bio-farma-secure-vaccine-bulk-supply-from-chinas-sinovac.html
WHO. (2020, October 13). Impact of COVID-19 on people's livelihoods, their health and our food systems. Retrieved from World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/news/item/13-10-2020-impact-of-covid-19-on-people's-livelihoods-their-health-and-our-food-systems