The Association Between Patient Characteristics and Disease Outcomes of COVID-19 in Jember, Indonesia

Diana Chusna Mufida, Putu Ayu Laksmi Lestari, Azham Purwandhono, Enny Suswati, Angga Mardro Raharjo


COVID-19 can cause serious conditions in both comorbid and elderly patients; hence, they need to be given proper follow-up treatment. This study aimed to determine the association between patient characteristics and disease outcomes of COVID-19 in Jember, Indonesia. This research is an analytic observational study with cross-sectional approach. The sample was 304 patients who were confirmed positive for COVID-19 at the COVID-19 referral hospitals in Jember. This study used medical record data analysed by using both univariate and bivariate tests. Patient characteristics related to the disease outcomes in patients who were positive for COVID-19 in Jember, are as follows: age (p = 0.000), clinical symptoms (p = 0.017), comorbidities (p = 0.000), and complications (p = 0.000). The unrelated variables were sex (p = 0.455), education level (p = 1.000), domicile (p = 1.000), occupation (p = 0.322), and smoking history (p = 0.147). Patients most at risk of developing fatal outcomes are those with complications. Patient characteristics associated with the disease outcomes in patients positive for COVID-19 were age, clinical symptoms, comorbidities, and complications. While, those that were not related to the disease outcomes in patients were sex, education level, occupation, domicile, and smoking history.


COVID-19; Disease outcome; Patient characteristics

Full Text:



Wang, Z., Yang, B., Li, Q., Wen, L., Zhang, R. Clinical Features of 69 Cases with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2020. 71(15), 769–777.

WHO. 2020. Virtual press conference on COVID-19 – 11 March 2020. emergencies-coronavirus-press-conference-full-and-final 11mar2020.pdf?sfvrsn=cb432bb3_2. Accessed September 9, 2020.

Mo, P., Xing, Y., Xiao, Y., Deng, L., Zhao, Q., Wang, H., et al. Clinical characteristics of refractory COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2020.

Yang, X., Yu, Y., Xu, J., Shu, H., Xia, J., Liu, H., et al. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2020.8(5), 475–481.

Liu, Y., Mao, B., Liang, S., Yang, J. W., Lu, H. W., Chai, Y. H., et al. Association between age and clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19. In European Respiratory Journal. 2020.

Kragholm, K., Andersen, M. P., Gerds, T. A., Butt, J. H., Østergaard, L., Polcwiartek, C., et al. Association Between Male Sex and Outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—A Danish Nationwide, Register-based Study. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020.

do Nascimento, I. J. B., von Groote, T. C., O’Mathúna, D. P., Abdulazeem, H. M., Henderson, C., Jayarajah, U., et al. Clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics and outcomes of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection in humans: A systematic review and series of meta-analyses. PLoS ONE. 2020

Brake, S. J., Barnsley, K., Lu, W., McAlinden, K. D., Eapen, M. S., Sohal, S. S. Smoking Upregulates Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor: A Potential Adhesion Site for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020.

Mutambudzi, M., Niedzwiedz, C. L., Macdonald, E. B., Leyland, A. H., Mair, F. S., Anderson, J. J., Morales, C. A. C., Cleland, J., Forbes, J., Gill, J. M., Hastie, C., Ho, F. K., Jani, B. D., Mackay, D. F., Nicholl, B. I., O’Donnell, C. A., Sattar, N. I., Welsh, P. I., Pell, J. P., … Demou, E. Occupation and risk of COVID-19: prospective cohort study of 120. SSRN Electronic Journal. 2020. 1–24.

East Java Provincial Government. 2020. Map of the Distribution of COVID-19 in East Java. Accessed September 10, 2020.

Jember Regency Government. COVID-19 Case in Jember Regency. 2020. Accessed September 9, 2020.

Chen, R., Liang, W., Jiang, M., Guan, W., Zhan, C., Wang, T., et al. Risk Factors of Fatal Outcome in Hospitalized Subjects With Coronavirus Disease 2019 From a Nationwide Analysis in China. 2020. Chest, 158(1), 97–105.

Biswas, M., Rahaman, S., Biswas, T. K., Haque, Z., Ibrahim, B. Association of Sex, Age, and Comorbidities with Mortality in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. In Intervirology. 2020 .

Qian, S. Z., Hong, W. D., Lingjie-mao, Chenfeng-lin, Zhendong-fang, Pan, J. Y. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Severe and Critical Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Wenzhou: A Retrospective Study. Frontiers in Medicine. 2020. 7(September), 1–7.

Liu, J., Zhang, L., Chen, Y., Wu, Z., Dong, X., Teboul, J. L., et al. Association of sex with clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients: A retrospective analysis of 1190 cases. Respiratory Medicine. 2020.

Yisak, H., Ewunetei, A., Kefale, B., Mamuye, M., Teshome, F., Ambaw, B., et al. Effects of vitamin d on covid-19 infection and prognosis: A systematic review. In Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 2021.

Chen, X., Chen, H. H. Differences in preventive behaviors of covid-19 between urban and rural residents: Lessons learned from a cross-sectional study in china. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020

Bhadra, A., Mukherjee, A., Sarkar, K. Impact of population density on Covid-19 infected and mortality rate in India. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021

Listyoko, A. S., S. Djajalaksana, dan T. Astuti. Association between smoking and the severity and mortality of Covid-19 patients hospitalized at RS Saiful Anwar Malang. Medica Hospitalia : Journal of Clinical Medicine.2020.

Giannouchos, T. V., Sussman, R. A., Mier, J. M., Poulas, K., Farsalinos, K. Characteristics and risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis and adverse outcomes in Mexico: an analysis of 89,756 laboratory–confirmed COVID-19 cases. European Respiratory Journal. 2020.

Landi, F., Barillaro, C., Bellieni, A., Brandi, V., Carfì, A., D’Angelo, M., et al. The New Challenge of Geriatrics: Saving Frail Older People from the SARS-COV-2 Pandemic Infection,. Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging. 2020.

Xu, Z., Shi, L., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Huang, L., Zhang, C., et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2020.

Singer, M., Deutschman, C. S., Seymour, C., Shankar-Hari, M., Annane, D., Bauer, M., et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (sepsis-3). In JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association.2016.

Gu, X., Zhou, F., Wang, Y., Fan, G., Cao, B. Respiratory viral sepsis: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. In European Respiratory Review. 2020.

Wujtewicz, M. A., Dylczyk-Sommer, A., Aszkiełowicz, A., Zdanowski, S., Piwowarczyk, S., Owczuk, R. COVID-19 - what should anaethesiologists and intensivists know about it? In Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy. 2020.

Zheng, Z., Peng, F., Xu, B., Zhao, J., Liu, H., Peng, J., et al. Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. In Journal of Infection (pp. e16–e25). 2020.

Shi, L., Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Duan, G., Yang, H. Dyspnea rather than fever is a risk factor for predicting mortality in patients with COVID-19. In Journal of Infection. 2020.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 203 times
PDF - 79 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© Jurnal Profesi Medika : Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan 2021


Wahidin Sudirohusodo Building, UPN Veteran Jakarta

Jl. RS Fatmawati No 1, Pondok Labu, Jakarta Selatan

Phone: 021-7656904 ; Fax: 021-7692860

Email : WA 085693341215 ; (paper handling / publication issues)

View My Stats Jurnal Profesi Medika